“In classes, students are given problems and taught to seek the solutions that their teachers expect; students’ success depends on their ability to do so. This even carries over to corporate managers who, when presented with a problem, want to know what their bosses would expect or like.

This approach to the problems precludes creativity because creativity is the production of solutions that are unexpected. Leaders are driven by ideas, not by the expectations of others. They are skilful at finding ways to beat a system, not surrendering to it.

Beating a system is a creative act, an ability that is not sufficient for leadership but is necessary for it. It requires identifying, denying, and exploring the consequences of denying assumptions made by most managers.”

-Russell Ackoff in “Re-Creating the Corporation: A Design of Organizations for the 21st Century”